What Is Mesothelioma

Types Of Mesothelioma

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Mesothelioma Related Occupations

Asbestos Cancer



Our mission is to create such therapies directly through in-house biotechnology research on strategically important topics. Currently, we are focusused on one area of research: Certain humans appear to possess natural cancer immunity. We attempt to harness this immunity to cure cancer in those not so fortunate.

In addition, we encourage and enable startup companies to do work against diseases through our business incubator program. We firmly believe that creating a world of sustainable biomedicine requires collaboration. Therefore, we make our research equipment available for high risk, early stage biotechnology research at a price anyone can afford.

Botox promises an encouraging future for cancer treatment

The Botox injections are among the most popular methods used today as anti –wrinkle treatment, and there are few celebrities who use this route to hide the time in your body. But apparently, in the near future, this substance could be used for much more important and useful purposes than the simple appearance: the treatment of cancer . We’re going to tell you why.

According to Norwegian scientists, who for many years studying potential treatments for different types of tumors, treatment with botox melbourne in laboratory mice sick stomach (most common in the world ‘s fourth) cancer has yielded results very promising.

The basic function of botox is the inhibition of the production of an important neurotransmitter called acetylcholine , which causes the nerve and muscles of the areas under its effect to become temporarily paralyzed.

It is also known that this neurotransmitter is closely related to cell division , which is able to stimulate remarkably. This is what has led scientists to try to use cancer treatment and perform the first tests in mice.

Botox slows cancer development

When injected into the stomach of the mice, where the tumor was located, the Botox blocked the signals emitted by the vagus nerve, which reaches the abdomen from the brain. Thus, with the effect of suppressed nerve, it was observed that cancer stem cells markedly slowed their growth.

In addition, tests showed that elimination of the signal and release of acetylcholine not only had a direct effect, but also made the cancer cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. In fact, the combination of botox and chemotherapy increased the survival rate in diseased mice by up to 35% compared to chemotherapy alone.

Although the research focused on early- stage stomach cancer , doctors do not rule out that the method can be used to target more advanced or even other tumors, such as prostate cancer. Human testing is expected to be done in the near future.

In the article published in Science Translational Medicine , the authors acknowledge that this does not in itself represent a cure for cancer , but the opportunities to make existing treatments more effective are very promising and may even extend the lives of certain patients in whom Other methods do not work well.

What do you think about this promising treatment?

How to do SEO for health web sites

In Positioning Web Systems we want to talk about how to do SEO for health sector webs ; When it comes to online marketing, not all strategies work the same for all websites, or for all items. When we talk about SEO we think of linkbuilding and optimization, but nowadays social networks and content play a very important role when positioning your website.

The SEO consists of all the actions that are done to position a Web in the first places of the search engines, it is estimated that 93% of the online experiences begin through a search engine, and more than 100 trillion searches are made Online every day.

If people search for health issues and they do not find you, you will receive little traffic, so they will not oppose you and you will not increase your income. It is important that you have a strategy. So how do you come up with the strategy?

  1. The first thing is to know who your competitors are , is one of the best practices with which you can get benefits and improve, seeing what they do and seeking to be better, never copying, which is unethical.
    For this you can use tools like Ahrefs, where you can see where your competitors have relevant links; We know that backlinks are very important to SEO. For example, if your competition has the most links from blogs, you can think about how to reach out to the bloggers community and find the exposure you need.
  2. The second is, get quality inbound links , today Google (main search engine) devalues ​​sites with links that are not natural or do not offer real value. The algorithms are more complex, so you have to be more careful, and not only avoid links because they can be bad but because they could penalize you. Some examples where a web of a health sector company can find good links are:
    • Mention of local directories, companies with physical addresses, such as clinics.
    • Be used as a source of information in sites of authority.
    • Image credits.
    • In chargeable material.
    • Public content that your users can apply in their day to day, so they share it and you will get inbound links.
  3. The next step is on-page optimization , this is one of the most technical aspects of brisbane seo for health web sites, and if what we mentioned before thought to do it yourself, for this you probably need to hire a developer, a marketing expert Online or seo agency . It is about improving the structure of a web so it is search engine friendly, including: shorten URLs, add meta description and meta title unique, use keywords in content, use H headings, include social sharing buttons , And have a good internal link structure.

It’s basic to be mobile friendly

Today it is very important to have a site that is friendly with mobile devices , ideal for any type of business, it is good to give a good first impression, according to data from Global Web Index “80% of Internet users have a Smartphone, “more than half of online searches are done through a mobile device. In Google a mobile friendly site will be better positioned than one that is not.

If you do not invest in adapting your health Web to the different devices, not only will you be bad before your potential customers, but you will be frowned upon by Google, and you could lose positions. And with the advancement of technology, it’s not about having a responsive Web, you could even create an app, and so your service will be accessible to millions of users through app stores.

Good content to do SEO for the health sector

You’ve probably read that SEO is “content is king”, and good content related to your specialty is an excellent tool for Web positioning, as this way you can attract new traffic. Every new post you post is an opportunity for potential patients to find you, what you post must meet some very important things:

72% of Internet users search for health topics.

An excellent choice of content that you can publish in a health web and get engagement and many more readers, are the testimonies , get people who have been patient and want to share how was your experience with your organization.

Social networks as part of marketing

Social networks are an excellent place to advertise, but they are also an option to answer questions and questions of patients, find moving stories in patients you have had and share them in social networks, you can show the best in your organization.

Online platforms are a great way to get inbound links to your Web, and a tool to propagate the content of your Web.

Finally, in your SEO positioning company , we consider it important for success in your health website campaign to be constantly testing and measuring , SEO will not be complete without this. To do so you can use free tools like Google Analytics or Google Webmaster Tools, there you can see if your efforts are bearing fruit. You can measure: traffic, rebound percentage, conversions, among other metrics .

Do you have any other tips to share? Write us through the comments and share with us and our followers other techniques that will help you achieve success.


The comments that raise the dreadful event in the Sultana del Norte respond more to the general morbidity in our society than to the exhaustive analysis. Both in print journals and on internet portals, a great variety of hypotheses arise on the grounds that led a teenager to shoot both his classmates and his teacher.

While some attack, others defend from their very particular points of view the behavior of the aggressor. Some wonder: How was it possible that I brought a weapon inside the school ?, as if it were very difficult to have or acquire a weapon of this caliber today, as it is known by the majority and we constantly see in the newscasts the enormous The amount of weaponry that circulates in the streets and when the authority strikes a blow to the criminals, manage to seize an entire arsenal ranging from the smallest calibers to those weapons that are for the exclusive use of the army, and we can see both pistols and rifles of high power. And as it becomes known in the different attacks perpetrated by “well-organized crime” also use fragmentation grenades and machine guns of very respectable calibers as well as bazookas to make armored units fly. In the streets you hear detonations of different calibers, which means that weapons can be within reach of all. Please let us reflect a little! And we will realize the magnitude of the problem in which we remain immersed.

We have a government that can be surpassed by society when the people decide. We cannot judge without knowing it, we would be speculating and we would be ignorant. The causes can be many, and the authorities will be the ones who determine after a complete study what was the reason that led this boy to commit the act and that way we will officially have the cause of the facts visit for more details.

The red spotlights have been on for a long time, but our “color blindness” refuses to see the color. Maximum Village Alert! Something overwhelming has happened and we hope it will not happen again in Mexico or anywhere in the world.

Let us be more reflective and analyze the situational state of society today, remember the family is the most important cell that forms the social fabric and cancer starts in a single cell that fails to perform its specific function, altering the behavior of others. When this evil is detected in time, the conventional remedy can be applied so that this cancer does not invade other organs and compromises the life of the human being. If the family is the basis of the societies of the world, it is here that we must emphasize, to make an exhaustive analysis to detect any evil that begins to be generated and to be able to solve it before having to do a surgery that will always be more expensive.

With a good analysis we will detect the missing nutrients in the family and lead a healthy life. And, if the main nutrient is: respect, honesty, work, love, happiness, affection, tenderness, understanding, tolerance and all those ingredients that together make up the “Moral Values”
WATCH OUT! Because we are facing a very serious and more dangerous disease than the cancer itself, the medicine is not in government offices, do not ask the government to solve your problem! It will not find antidote in schools because there is no solution and there is no drug in the church, the only treatment to date is in the home and self-medication is the most effective.

Begin to use great doses of love, affection understanding and tenderness towards you and your children, continue to adhere them with respect, humility and tolerance without neglecting work and honesty and the rest will gradually come until “values” take root in Your home “Let us reflect while the next coffee arrives!

Small Heroes Against Cancer

Each year, there are 1,500 new cases of childhood and adolescent cancer in Spain. 1,500 diagnoses that fall like a bomb in the houses of our country during the 365 days that has a year.

If the word cancer has become one of the most dreaded of our days, when it affects children, the word takes on a new dimension, because the impact of the disease extends to the whole family .

Today the International Day of the Child with Cancer is celebrated all over the world, and on this date, the Spanish Federation of Parents of Children with Cancer recalls that the survival rate of this disease in children is growing higher , Five-year rate by 75%. However, they point out that this figure will never be enough until 100% is reached. In children and adolescents, the most common cancer is leukemia .

A leukemia like the one Fer has, a nice boy of seven years, who has been facing since June an illness that has made him stay the last seven months of his house to the hospital and the hospital to his house. Between the two sites, Fer has a clear choice: “It ‘s much more fun to be at home because you play, and here I have things in hospi are difficult to put on , like the Wii “.

We spent the afternoon with him, with Susana-his mother-and his little brother, Angel, five, who flutters between us as we chat. “Can I tell you something about the claim?” Susana asks. “-Of course”. And begins to relate his small daily battles within the great struggle in which he has lived for months. He complains about the little investment in the hospital : “I’ve had the child with chemotherapy, with nausea, that when they are, they smell it all, and do you know the smell in the rooms when it rains?” “The professionals are great, there is a very prepared generation,” but not so much the facilities, he says. “When I saw that the Community had spent more than one million euros in an advertising campaign on Health, I was amazed,” he explains.

When Fer and his mother go to the Infant Jesus, the hospital where he was treated and where he had to stay, at the beginning of this story, 40 days in isolation, are usually in contact with the Aladina Foundation team . “They are the ones who have made the newest part of the hospital,” he explains, referring to the Maktub Center , the area of ​​bone marrow transplants, which has cost 500,000 euros. “It’s spectacular,” says Susana, adding, “but that’s something the state should do, for that we pay taxes.”

Another of his struggles is the education of his son. Because of his situation, Fer can not go to school, and the Community of Madrid does not pay a teacher to go home because he goes to a private school . “If it were a public school or a concerted one, a teacher would come three hours three days a week, but since he goes to a private school, the Community pays a Foundation, which sends a teacher, but only two hours twice A week, “says Susana, who has even written to the Ombudsman to report his situation.

We ask you to tell us how it all began. He explains that the diagnosis came in Alicante, when Fer and his brother were with his grandmother, spending the summer holidays. It was she who saw that the boy was very tired, did not bathe, did not play, took three steps and tired. The tests started and then the diagnosis came: leukemia.

“At that moment, it’s a feeling that you want to die, it’s horrible, it changes your life in a matter of hours, ” says Susana, who also says that her son had a terrible time at the beginning, because he really saw his mother Scared

The problem, explains Susana, is that on June 28, uncertainty had only just begun. “They tell you it’s a leukemia but they do not tell you what type,” says Susana, remembering the weeks and weeks of tests that came after, always waiting for the most favorable result.

In the end, they knew, with the names and surnames: acute lymphoblastic leukemia type B, a complication that, within leukemias, is not the worst. “I will not forget one day when a mother asked me what was wrong with my son in the hospital. When I told him, he said: ‘the lottery has hit you.’ And it is that the daughter of that woman needed a transplant, and after obtaining it, its body rejected it. Fer does not need it, but everyone in the family has become bone marrow donors . “You can save a life and it costs nothing, we would all have to be,” Susana says.

In a few weeks, Fer and his family will spend seven months living with leukemia. It is supposed, explains his mother, “that the worst has already happened,” and now the maintenance phase begins, which are two years, “with which, we would end this summer, not the next.”

To say that all this time has been very difficult would be to say nothing. “I think the worst part is taken by mothers,” says Susana, who explains that she came to weigh 40 kilos and is now taking medication.

“Excuse me, and the children?” Complains Fer. “Well, I wanted to say other than the child,” her mother answered affectionately. “I do not mean that parents do not suffer at all, but is that mothers break with his life. I in seven months will have gone two or three times, to celebrate my birthday and little else Everything else is cancer, cancer All over the world, “explains Susana, who also has a younger son than Fer, who has inevitably been a bit displaced during all this time that her brother has been sick.

Susana is a pharmacist, she worked, but she left it when her son was diagnosed. Her father, who shaved his head when Fer’s hair fell off for the first time, did continue to work. “I recognize that it has helped me to take refuge,” he says.

“Fer, what are your plans for later?” After the question, there are a lot of projects: limousine, go to the disco , travel to Paris to see the Eiffel Tower or Rome to eat pizza . “Oh, and hire photo booth melbourne and have a party with all my friends!” .


The Active Women Association was born in 2006 in the interest of promoting the culture of physical activity as a healthy lifestyle among women.
“We are a group of friends, athletes who have somehow excelled in various sports disciplines, swimming, racing and triathlon mainly; Nelly Becerra was the idea of creating this association, as she presided over the Women’s Commission in the Mexican Triathlon Federation.
“She formed a group that we used to promote the sport among women, since we saw that women’s foray into the sport was always much lower than in man, which is already changing thanks to God,” he said. Says the expert.
In 2006, they began a congress to which invited speakers and women in sports such as cycling, triathlon and swimming were invited.
“We invite the first Mexican relay that crossed the English Channel formed by almost all those who integrate Active Women. “Among them is Nora Toledano, the most recognized and experienced open water swimmer and trainer in Mexico, Patty Kohlmann who was an Olympic swimmer, Mónica Ramírez and Edna Llorens who are world champions,” he adds.
In the same year 2006 the Congress was held, the first swim “For Them … strokes for the prevention of cancer …” was held, which currently has an annual invitation event in the Sea of Cortez. At that first junction six swimmers crossed the 9 bays of Huatulco, which are approximately 26 km.
“The Government of Oaxaca, and many other public and private actors of the organization, supported this crossing where a Health Fair and mobile units were set up to make free mastographs for local women, since the main cause of death in The woman, at that time was cervical cancer of the uterus; Is currently breast cancer. “There were born the crosses” By Them “of which we already have 9 editions; Our intention is to touch all the States of the Republic, “he says.
Currently, they also raise funds to donate diagnostic devices such as mastographs, ultrasound, etc. to institutions that do not have resources and a large population of women to attend. They also donate some supplies for patients who have had cancer such as sleeves, bras, prostheses, etc.
“The second state that touched this project was Baja California Sur, La Paz city mainly, where they have been repeating the events because the State welcomed them very well.
“The place is an incredible natural beauty and the conditions of swimming are really exceptional, because the sea of Cortes, as said Jacques Costeau is the largest fish tank in the world.”
The official name of the annual event is By Them by invitation, and here the athlete community is invited, mainly swimmers from all sides, whether men or women, to make the crossing of Sea of Cortez and to join the cause in Prevention of cancer.
“At these crossings in Baja California, swimmers go with absolute safety as they are accompanied by a boat and the best kayaks, and allowed to go along the coast.
“For security reasons participants are mainly asked to be experienced swimmers, since you are in a totally alien environment; That is why there must be an endorsement of the coach or captain of the team, that is responsible for their swimmers have the ability to swim in open water.
“The invitation format has been running since 2009; Each team is eight members who swim in pairs for half an hour and are relieved to cover the distance that is currently 35 km, “he says.
Each swim is different and each case is different, for example, in the Sea of Cortez can be found bad waters, much current, or there may be excessive heat depending on the temperature of the water.
“The theme of these invitation events is to raise funds to make a donation for the prevention of Cancer; To date, an ultrasound device has been donated to the La Paz State Oncology Center, a mastograph at the Hospital of Cozumel and with the swim of Por Ellas, the construction of the Diagnostic and Treatment Center for Cancer in Quintana Roo “, Add.
In addition, prosthetics have been donated to the Women’s Hospital in Yautepec, Morelos, and more than 5,000 studies have been done free of charge between mastographs, pap smears and the application of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccines.
“Active Women with this aims to spread the culture of cancer prevention and invite the population to do at least half an hour of exercise a day as a healthy lifestyle, We are totally convinced that physical activity goes very hand in hand with health, “he says.
In February 2004 Nanés suffered one of the most bitter drinks of her life, detected breast cancer and had a radical mastectomy on the right side with removal as 40 lymph nodes.
“This means that they remove the entire mammary gland and remove all the tissue that is underlying it, called part of the torso attached to the armpit and the entire breast and nipple of course.
“I had the advantage of having a very radical treatment because I have a history of cancer in my entire family, my dad and my older sister died of cancer, cousins, aunts, grandmothers and so on,” he says.
Due to this situation the doctor who attended Nanés wanted to be very aggressive, however it was not enough because in December I had to remove the other side.
“Thank God my doctor was very radical, I did not have to take chemo or radios, he is in Hospital Ángeles del Pedregal, it is Dr. Javier Gómez Pedroso and he is a type …
“I had an oral anti-estrogen treatment for five years, which is commonly prescribed to women who have breast cancer,” she recalls.
Despite this, Nanés is checked every year, a battery of tests is done, to see that she remains clean of cancer.
“Thank God on February 4 I am 9 years old; When she started Active Women and Swimmers, they invited me to participate to make it clear that a woman who has gone through a disease that erroneously has a synonym of death, can get ahead if she stays active … she can do everything, “he says.
When she overcame the cancer, the Health Coach now has a stop in her life, and she says that for her it was like a new opportunity.
“For me … it was like being reborn because the cancer has taken a lot of family … so I took this as a blessing and decided that I had to do something that transcended, not only leave a legacy like any person … because I believe that each person That passes through this life leaves something positive in it; However when I went through this I gave myself the task of leaving something superior, “he says.
Although Nanés was already a swimmer, a triathlon coach and prepared people to be an athlete, not so much towards competitive sport but as a healthy lifestyle, the disease marked her.

“I have a commitment to God that gave me the opportunity, with my family who has supported me at all times and with all the people around me who showed me great affection, which was a fundamental part for me to go forward,” he says. .
Nanés began to certify since 1998 that she became a formal coach when taking certifications in Mexico and is an example of life, because someone who goes through something like this now can tell her athletes not to give up
“What I tell you is – Do not give up so easily, you can do what you want while you decide to do it, as the slogan of active women says …” If you can dream you can do it “and it’s all about You have a routine and a commitment to yourself because without chambear you do not achieve anything, “he says.
The Association was formalized before a notary in 2008, with the aim of promoting physical activity and exercise as a healthy lifestyle and promoting a culture of cancer prevention; Two of the founders are survivors of cancer, Paty Mackelligan and I, as well as we swim in the crosses By them.
The Association has grown and nowadays, besides the swimmers, they have congresses, business talks and wherever they are asked.
“Now we open the field a little, we have a merger with Las Estacas, there we have aquatlones, swimming against currents and races and part of what is collected in the events is donated to hospitals for people with few resources.
“Apart from this, we have an agreement with the Idea Moda Interior shop, which is a socially responsible company (ESR), with whom we have been raising funds for free mammography studies for women in marginalized populations for three years.
“Until this year, with the Campaign Idea … For Ellas … have collected almost 600 thousand pesos, an average of 200 thousand pesos each year; Our Association is on the Second Floor, that is, we collect the money and donate it to those who can apply the resource directly, “he says.
“In this project, we worked hand in hand with ASBIS (Association that also works for the prevention of cancer) and in the first year made 780 mastographs to the pepenadoras of Nezahualcóyotl.
“The second year took the resort to San Jose del Rincon in Toluca which is a very poor population … we are looking for very marginalized populations so that people who have less chance of having less information can have access to it.
“We are not going to embrace all the needs of this country, but we are putting a grain of sand and we are distributing the resource in different places, because all Mexico needs it,” he says.
This year the appeal of the 2012 Campaign will be applied to prepare a mobile unit to go to different populations and provide the service of free mastographs.
One of the athletes of Team Orca Mexico (who is the team that trains Nanés) asked her to train a group of athletes to cross the Channel … and although the Channel can not be compared with La Paz, That in the Channel the water is between 14 and 18 degrees and in La Paz it can be between 20 and 25 degrees Nanés anyway accepted.
“Olimpia Delgado proposed the project and I can not say no when people ask me for help … I had an incredible challenge, I did not know the Cystic Fibrosis disease, I was in touch with the subject, and I decided to accept it.
“I asked my great friend Nora Toledano * to advise me during the whole training and she accepted to be the coach of the team; We worked two years with the team to prepare ourselves, and we crossed in the format of relays the Channel, in September 2010
“Sadly we did not get sponsorship but the desire of the team were many and we achieved even in a year in which very few crosses were achieved”, he says.
Nanés says that having the life of the swimmers in their hands implies a great responsibility, since you should never expose a swimmer who does not cover all the requirements, since it is a human life, which for her is the most important.
“When you get to Dover to cross, the captain of the boat is the one who defines when to attempt the crossing; Gives you the schedule only two hours before you start. The conditions in the Canal (climate, winds and water temperature), are very little controllable, the most important thing is to take care of the life of the swimmer.
“I feel that when you do things for a specific cause, and you give your effort to someone else, up there is a Higher Force that helps you achieve it,” he adds.
The year of its crossing (2010) when the team of Rescuers of Dreams arrived at Dover the swimmers took a month and a half without leaving by the terrible conditions and bad weather
“We arrived and had our window from August 30th to September 6th and we crossed the 31st of August with exceptional luck.”
“We left at 3:30 in the afternoon and concluded around 5 in the morning; Were 13 hours 33 minutes, swimming approximately 60 km. It was an exceptional crossing, there was no setback, we all covered our swim time without any news, and we did not suffer hypothermia. ”
“It was a magical crossing but I believe that the magic comes from that delivery of swimming for someone else, that has filled my life and I will continue to do it”, ends


Unfortunately one of the trends within social groups is to look at the toilet as a minor activity that responds to a need for cleanliness, order and aesthetics. However, the toilet not only represents the beautiful face of a place, sector or person, its reason of being goes beyond showing something shiny or simply clean, cleanliness is an activity that leads to a better business, social and home environment . Sadly, one of the trends within social groups is to look at the toilet as a minor activity that responds to a need for cleanliness, order and aesthetics.
However, the Jesse toilet not only represents the beautiful face of a place, sector or person, its reason of being goes beyond showing something shiny or simply clean, cleanliness is an activity that leads to a better business, social and home environment .
Grooming is linked to health The cares and worries of daily life absorb and even irritate people, who have limited time to think about their health, not smoking, not overeating or exercising frequently .
But those same people forget that action leading to cleanliness, hygiene and beautification and which also creates an environment conducive to good health.
More and more microbes appear every day or at least vary from various bacteria and diseases in general, leading to a number of symptoms considered common in society: catarrh, headaches, skin problems, sinusitis, flu; Which appear by our way of life and why not, by the way we develop our activities against the dirt that accumulates daily around us.
Because even in the places we least notice we concentrate a quantity of dust, dirt and multiple residues that little by little affects the individuals; A situation to take into account when accessing a toilet service and a number of workers in the industry.
In this sense, it is important to emphasize that the toilet is not simply a simple and easy task, or that many can do, the truth is that the toilet is a responsibility and a work marked by a professionalism and a deep knowledge of the best way Do away with dirt; A form that goes beyond the simple mop and broom, since it takes advantage of the technology and the experience to fulfill in a professional way and with a greater degree of excellence, the task of cleaning and beautifying.
There are companies that have specialized in the area of cleaning mainly working two types of services: daily maintenance for companies or industries through contracts and the provision of specialized services in homes and offices.
Before the simple soap, mop or broom, these companies offer a study on the needs of cleaning, the best way to do it and the material both technical and human to make possible a perfect and lasting work.
Technology is also part of that package of options; Cleaning appliances such as glazes, air purifiers, disinfection apparatus and Micro-diffusers and floor-crystallization devices have entered the country to optimize the activity and present results and a greater performance in that sense.
The same as the cleaners and products for both the home and the professional grooming that meet a nation finds dirt, dust and debris.
Cali is one of the cities with very low levels of hygiene, there is a lot of dust and many elements that become garbage, some companies have too many cleaning problems (sick building syndrome), which makes us think about the need for a change of Attitude towards the toilet and the way it is being done.
The companies that work in the toilet industry also offer special services, focused on specific needs in which they work with a higher level of specialization and with a longer time for each process.
In the end, cleaning together with an awareness of maintaining good health through all the technical possibilities offered by the market (water purifiers, air, cleaning products) achieves the goal of beautification, aesthetics and order.
But also, it works for the health, economy, care and maintenance of the elements that make up a labor, industrial, home or communal space.

Costs in health: from the accounting, bookkeeping analysis to the economic evaluation

Some techniques of cost analysis in health are analyzed and it is proposed to introduce the economic perspective within the cost studies as a necessary complement in the context of health sector reform. It briefly reviews some specific changes that need to be introduced in traditional studies and concludes that such changes are in themselves cost-beneficial, since they only require slightly increasing the complexity of studies to significantly increase their usefulness.

Traditionally, cost studies in the Costa Rican Social Security Fund have been carried out from an accounting and bookkeeping perspective, mainly in order to establish rates for the uninsured population.1 These studies filled a need for the institution for long time, however, the needs have changed. The reasons for the demand for this type of study are today, and into the future, more related to the allocation of resources, be it between alternative treatments, between internal or external provision, between health care centers or any other forms Alternatives to allocate resources. This situation demands the introduction of social and economic factors in traditional cost analysis.

The need to increase efficiency, in order to improve the provision of services to the population, requires resources to be allocated to the best available alternatives, which in the health sector is only possible through in-depth studies that include Exhaustively the advantages and disadvantages-costs and benefits-of such alternatives.

We often face the Fund with the need to choose between two options that offer basically the same results, but with different costs. An example is the choice between internal provision or outsourcing of services: the difference is in costs – in terms of monetary costs, waiting times, etc. – because if the technology is the same both internally and externally, Differ significantly. In such cases, a cost minimization analysis is recommended.2 This type of study is used when, to meet a need for health care or service organization, there are two or more options, all of which offer very similar results.

There are different types of cost analysis, with different characteristics and objectives, that need to be known to apply them to the solution of specific problems.3
Different types of cost studies

In terms of costs, a first differentiation to be made is between economic costs and accounting costs. Accounting costs help with cash flow planning, tariff setting, or budgetary resource allocation, but they have limitations on the economic evaluation of those costs that do not involve cash flows, as well as on the evaluation of results.

A second type of study refers to the cost description. These studies are limited to making a collection of all the costs in which it is necessary to incur to carry out an intervention. 4 The cost description may include economic costs in general, but is not an economic assessment as such, not as compared to other alternatives nor evaluates the results. The usefulness of these studies is very limited; In general they can be used when other alternatives are not available to solve a particular problem or as a first stage for complete economic studies.

Another type of study is cost analysis, which compares two alternative interventions in relation to their costs. This type of analysis is a partial economic evaluation, since it does not contemplate the results of the options analyzed. An investment project can have a much lower cost than another, precisely because it does not incorporate all the necessary requirements to solve the problem in question. Cost analysis can be useful when there is a reduced and fixed amount for investment, which requires choosing the lowest cost option, leaving aside the results.

Finally, there is the analysis of cost minimization, which constitutes a complete economic evaluation, both in terms of costs and benefits. This type of analysis has the peculiarity of comparing interventions with basically equal results, so a step prior to performing a cost minimization analysis is to prove that the interventions to be compared do not differ substantially from the results.
Cost minimization analysis

The analysis of cost minimization thus appears as a type of study that responds largely to the current needs of cost evaluation by the Institution.

Since these studies are performed in order to serve the decision-making process, they must comply with a series of formal requirements that allow them to be read by a relatively large number of professionals (doctors, administrators, etc.). For this reason, it is recommended that they have the following characteristics.5

1. They must clearly explain the problem they aim to solve, the study objectives
and overall methodology used.

2. You should make a comprehensive description of the options available to address the problem including the option of doing nothing. This description should include the methods used and the possible effects on the patient, both in purely clinical terms and in terms of the benefit itself (discomfort, side effects, etc.). In this sense, every effort should be made to rely on Existing national or international evidence. 6

3. It should be analyzed or at least mention if other alternatives to the future are envisaged and what would be, in general terms, the potential impact of them.

4. Clearly identify all relevant social costs and benefits. As a public entity, the Fund seeks not to maximize its corporate profits but the social benefits. For this reason, the costs of the programs should include those of the population, those of the productive sector and those of other public institutions.

5. Measure in appropriate and homogeneous units both costs and benefits and explicitly evaluate the methods used, with their advantages and disadvantages.

6. Identify the temporal distribution of costs and benefits and present the results to the current time, using appropriate update rates. For the users of the studies, the results are clearer if they are brought to the present than if they are located in another point of the temporal space.

7. When costs or benefits are not constant per unit of production for any of the alternatives evaluated, a marginal cost-benefit analysis should be performed. For some technologies, average costs may increase or decrease as production increases. Likewise, an increase in production may reduce the benefit of treatment, either through overcrowding of patients, because the quality of personal care falls or for other reasons. This situation requires a break-even analysis of production, which could eventually lead to the choice of a combination of alternatives. Again, an example is the dilemma between internal production and outsourcing, where a combination of alternatives could be optimal in some services. 

8. Perform a sensitivity analysis to observe the impact of the change in magnitude of some of the variables used in the analysis, such as the number of patients treated, discount rate, equipment life and, finally, All those variables whose magnitudes have been assumed or estimated and that could vary within a certain range.

The analysis of cost minimization requires first of all to be exhaustive with the relevant costs. The main categories of costs to be taken into account are presented in the No. 1 box . Irrelevant costs, that is, those that do not bring a fundamental difference to the result, can be omitted, since the cost of collecting them often makes their inclusion not in itself a cost benefit.

A relevant aspect in minimizing costs is to be clear about the perspective from which the analysis is done. An element that is a cost to one participant could be a benefit to another. When using a social perspective, the analysis includes the costs of all the economic agents involved. This is the broadest analysis whenever there are doubts as to the costs and benefits to be taken into account.

When comparing options, it is possible to ignore the common costs between them and compare only the costs that differ. For example two options may have the same administrative costs, imply the same costs of transferring the patient, etc., which allows them to be excluded from the analysis. However, cost exclusion precludes future comparison with new options that differ in omitted costs.

Possible problems in determining costs

The valuation of each element, both on the cost side and the benefits, should be made at market prices. However, in some cases there are particular reasons for using another type of cost. An example is a situation in which an external donation of an asset is received, but it is necessary to condition a space, in this case the real cost that must be imputed to the project is the conditioning of the space. The price of the asset is not considered, since it does not represent an opportunity cost for the system, that is, the asset is received or not received, but can not be exchanged for another option.

In other situations, it is necessary to impute opportunity costs to goods and services not available in the market or to apportion the cost of an investment between several services or various periods of time. In these cases you have to resort to some special techniques to allocate the costs, which we detail below.

– Assessment of the time not worked by the patient and his / her relatives or companions. This situation presents two problems: on the one hand a salary should be imputed to each one of these people and, on the other, one must estimate the time that each one of them destines to the attention. Since these figures vary from one patient to another, time estimation requires a review of the distribution of characteristics that may affect it, such as age and the range of motion (which determine, for example, the need for a companion) , Geographic dispersion of the population served, average duration of treatment, etc. Regarding the evaluation of the time devoted to health care, the average salary or salary is used that is representative of what the patient and his family could earn during the time they dedicate to the care; However, when it is necessary to allocate free time to health care, the rate of extraordinary remuneration (payments for extraordinary days) is used. The argument behind this latest valuation is that it is the rate at which the waiver of leisure time is paid on the market.

– Capital investments. Capital costs have several differences with respect to the operating costs of the programs. Unlike the latter, capital costs represent one-time payments, usually at the start of the program. These payments are invested in an asset that is used over time, and that is depreciating during that period. In this way, capital investment represents two costs: on the one hand is the opportunity cost of the amount invested and, on the other hand, the cost of the depreciation that the asset is suffering as time passes. One method to address these two costs together is to analyze the initial capital investment over the useful life of the asset, calculating its equivalent annual cost. Another way of dealing with capital investments is to determine the annual amortization using some accounting, bookkeeping method and then determine the opportunity cost from the asset’s undepreciated balance.

– Another problem in evaluating costs is cost-sharing by programs. Although there is no exact way to prorate these costs between programs, there are several techniques among which you can choose to carry out such a task. The idea is to determine an allocation base, which is considered to be related to the use of the service, to allocate maintenance costs; The number of hours contracted by the service in relation to the number of hours contracted by all the final production services, to assign administration jacks; The number of employees of the service in relation to the total number of hospital workers, to allocate telephone expenses. A formula that although crude, it may be practical for distribution overhead is:
Cost = Cost program directly allocable + (hospital Net expense / total patient-day X (number of patient-days attributable to the program).

When the difference from this calculation to a finer one is not significant, this formula is appropriate. This is a principle that must be applied in all calculations more exact entails a very large effort and the gain in accuracy does not have a significant effect on the final result, it is preferable to use a rough approximation.
Conclusions and recommendations

– The new model of resource allocation, implemented by the reform process, requires the introduction of a new perspective in cost studies, going from bookkeeping, accounting studies to economic studies, which, among other things, introduce a perspective In the evaluation of costs and benefits. Visit Online xero bookkeeper sydney for more information.
– Economic cost minimization studies appear as the appropriate technique for solving many of the resource allocation dilemmas. Indeed, in the hospital environment and in the administration of health system resources, the problem of choosing between two or more alternatives with the same results but with differences in costs, which must be solved From a cost minimization analysis.
– Cost minimization studies do not differ significantly from cost accounting studies in terms of the difficulty of their elaboration; However, they present significant differences from the perspective of their usefulness. For this reason, the proposed change of perspective is in itself cost-effective.
– The institution has human resources of wide experience in the evaluation of costs, which facilitates the development of a team specialized in the matter. The increase in the demand for this type of studies, which is even more visible towards the future, fully justifies the investment that the institution makes in order to develop a unit with such functions. 

Fryer Without Oil’s healthy result. Which Is The Best Of 2017?

Since the oil fryers were introduced to the market, there has been much speculation about the quality of the fryers and their ability to deliver quality and healthy results.

Today PepeBar, which as you know, we are specialists in industrial fryers , we decided to meet the challenge and discover the true reality of fryers without oil and see the differences, benefits and comparisons with fryers forever.  Visit

To carry out the study, we had to test several oil-free fryers from different brands, from the best known to the most unknown ones (made in China) and finally we have left with a selection of the 6 best oil free fryers of 2016 and 2017.

In no case we are saying that oil-free fryers not listed in this article are bad, in fact some of them, offers us a similar result, although with a cheaper price, this difference in price lies in the quality of Materials of manufacture, and that therefore end up affecting the durability of the same, for this reason we have not incorporated these fryers.

As you can see, Between Philips and Tefal have topped the oil-free fryers booths, leaving room for two rather unknown, but not less important, models.

Prices Of Oil Free Fryers:

In the following table you can see the prices, all of them approximate and depending on the place where you want to buy them.

ActiFry 2 in 1 white
Why Buy A Fryer Without Oil?

Many have asked us about them, and we will respond today with a clear NO.

It’s not the same, it does not taste the same. And you do not save too much.

For Whom And Why Is An Oil Fryer A Good Investment?

If you want to eat healthier, without fried and refried, the fryer without oil or fryer of air, may be suitable for you. Sacrifice flavor for fewer calories.

Let’s be clear that the “oil-free fryers” are not fryers, they are mini-ovens, which cook and brown the food, where they look like fried. But they are not a substitute product, since by removing the oil from the fryer, we can not fry, we can only, brown, toast, bake, but never fry, so that the oil taste and all its fats are eliminated.

Comparative Fryers Without Oil:

Philips AirFryer

Fryer without oil philips 2Philips oil free fryer









 Philips AirFryer XL

Philips xl oil free fryerPhilips xl oil free fryer










Tefal Actifry Mini

Actifry mini oil fryerActifry mini oil fryer











It offers a good performance for a maximum of 2 people. Correct materials, after one month of use, and intensive use the Actifry mini is still in perfect condition, no breakage, no scratching.

In terms of taste, like all the others, it is not the same, but thanks to its reduced dimensions, the concentration of heat and the air circulation, it offers a better result. Slightly different taste, and roasting more intense (always also depends on the weather).





Tefal Actifry 2 In 1

Tefal 2 in 1 oil free fryer Tefal 2 in 1 oil free fryer

Fryer Without Oil SOGO

No fryer

La Sogo we have used it for 10 days, and after these days we can say that the difference with the others, it is noticeable in the quality of the finishes. As a result of “frying”, the results are very similar to the other models and brands.

Both our tests and opinions of other Sogo users are that the lid of the SOGO oil-free fryer is a bit hard, and there are times that it costs to close.

If you are looking for a fryer without oil cheap, this can be yours.

Its main details:


Klarstein VitAir Fryer

Oil fryer Klarstein VitAir Fryer

And a gift.

If you have arrived here, we have a little surprise.

After publishing the article, some of you told us to do a review of AirisFry, here it is.

Airis Fry Fryer Without Oil.

Fryer oil free airisfry

Compact size, although not small in size, very similar to the Philips Air Fryer, seems almost a clone, if not because it has two controls in its central area.

As for the quality of cooking, it offers a surprising quality (given if price), which has not left with a good taste of mouth (never better). Toasted uniform and crisp, good color. Correct taste.

Its price is around 100 euros, making it one of the cheapest. Highly recommended if you are not a born fryer, and you are looking for a good “fryer without oil”.

What is Focused Ultrasound, the treatment by bestsellers writer John Grisham gives his latest book

A reporter for The Washington Post called it “one of the rarest literary digressions in recent memory.”

This is the latest book by American bestsellers writer John Grisham, who decided to give it to readers to promote an emerging therapy against cancer and other diseases.

This is the high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) , a type of non – invasive treatment that uses sound waves of high frequency to fight tumors.

And it is not that Grisham, who normally writes legal thrillers, has decided to focus the plots of his books from now on in the field of medicine.

The story has more to do with personal feelings of the writer, who a few years ago befriended Neal Kassell, founder of the Focused Ultrasound Foundation in the United States and professor of neurosurgery at the University of Virginia.

Kassell eventually asked Grisham to join his foundation’s committee to help with fundraising.

The aim of the foundation is to accelerate the adoption of technology.

Grisham UltrasoundCopyright imageFOCUSED ULTRASOUND FOUNDATION
Image captionThe book is available online.

Instead, Grisham decided to do what he knows best: to write.

And that was the origin of the book “The tumor” that the writer decided to give “against the advice of his agent, editor and publisher , ” according to The Washington Post .

The book is available in English on the Foundation’s website and on Amazon.

The protagonist is a 35-year-old man with a brain tumor. The book has two ends: one in which this treatment is used and one in which no.

” It is the most important book I have written” , said Grisham.

“Very promising”

The technology involves the application of a directed beam of ultrasonic high frequency and high energy , with temperatures up to 100 ° C to destroy with thermal ablation of cancer cells.

As the beam is selectively directed, healthy surrounding tissues not affected.

Magnifying glassCopyright imageTHINKSTOCK
Image captionThe principle of focused ultrasound is very similar to a magnifying glass focuses sunlight.

The fundamental principle of technology is analogous to using a magnifying glass to focus a beam of sunlight at a point to make a hole, for example, on a sheet.

In this case, an acoustic lens is used to concentrate multiple ultrasound beams on a target in the body.

“High-intensity focused therapy has been around for some time now,” Martin Ledwig, a nursing communications director at Cancer Research in the UK, told BBC World.

One of the advantages of treatment is that it has fewer side effects than other treatments used today.

But it is only useful for a specific tumor or to treat a part of a larger tumor, explains Cancer Research on its website.

It can not be used to treat most common tumors and neither can cross bones or air, so could not be used in all types of cancer.

Most of the research on its use has focused on prostate cancer.

GrishamCopyright imageGETTY
Image captionJohn Grisham writes legal thrillers normally.

Results from clinical trials so far show that this treatment has fewer side effects related to incontinence or erection problems.

They have shown that it may be so successful in the management of prostate cancer such as radiotherapy.

But the treatment has not been used long enough to know if its long-term results are as good as those of surgery or radiotherapy.

In the United Kingdom, for example, it has been treated primarily in clinical trials on prostate, kidney or liver cancer.

In the case of prostate cancer, in some circumstances it is already used outside clinical trials in the public health system.

“It ‘s good treatment, very promising, but we must be cautious, still do not have full information , ” says Ledwig.


Plants without the harsh use of cleaning chemicals is a must for many families. The health of pets and children is a priority, and nothing that puts them in danger is not worth the risk. Steam mops take the worry and hassle out of getting a variety of clean surfaces. Not only clean without chemicals, but many of them sterilize the floors.

Disinfection temperature

The minimum temperature to kill material transmitted by food is 73.9 degrees C, but the Centers for Disease Control recommends 100 degrees C to remove a wider variety of germs. A temperature of 54.4 degrees C is required to kill dust mites, according to environment, health and safety online. By definition, steam mops sterilize when the water reaches a boiling point of 100 degrees C. You should carefully drive, however, because the steam can cool to 37.8 degrees C by the time it travels to the plant.

Best Mops Disinfection

According to comments, steam mops that got favorable reviews are the Haan FS-20 Haan SI-35 steam mop disinfectant slimmer and the light disinfectant steam mop. The FS-20 sanitizes in just one minute, and in addition to sanitizing surfaces, can be used to clean bacteria in the bathroom, on countertops or to kill dust mites in upholstery. Even with its smaller head of steam, SI-35 cleans and sanitizes well. Its tank is larger and detachable, compared to the FS-20, but can not be used to clean non-plant surfaces.

Best Steam Moppers

For steam mops that clean but do not sterilize, consider the Bissell 1867-7 steam mop. It is favorably reviewed for its ability to clean narrow areas and its large water tank. It is possible to sterilize with this steam mop, but it should be kept in place for 15 seconds, which can damage the floors and take a lot of time to clean a large floor. The Pocket Shark Steam Mop S3501 is a popular choice when hygiene is not a priority, but costs more than Haan FS-20, which sterilize. The RP must be pumped to emit steam, which can be tedious. One test worked out by the Wall Street Journal that the mop is good at cleaning the stains, though – better than Bissell 1867-7.


Before buying a steam mop, research how long it takes the mop to emit steam at the proper temperature. For rooms of considerable size, using a steam mop with slow emission times can make for a laborious cleaning process. Think, too, how you want to use the vacuum cleaner, for floors, or other surfaces, too.

Breakfasts and dinners: what to eat to take a healthy diet

A healthy diet and balanced is what allows the body to function optimally. To achieve this , it is essential that based on foods that promote the proper functioning of the organism and avoid diet – related diseases, such as obesity or cardiovascular problems. For this reason, experts recommend that diet be part of a healthy lifestyle, be rich in foods of plant origin and fiber and, on the other hand, low in animal fat, in sweets and high calorie products. This article reviews the main characteristics of a healthy diet and presents specific suggestions for breakfast and dinner.

What should a healthy diet contain?

For a balanced diet should contain at least two servings of vegetables daily , one at lunch and another at dinner; from 2 to 3 pieces or servings of fruit a day; of 2 to 3 servings of food protein a day (meat, fish and eggs, low fat preferred), grains or starches rich in fiber , such as pasta, rice or wholemeal bread or vegetables; and avoid foods like sugar , sweets and jams rich in sugar, sugary drinks , pastries and cakes industrial and precooked foods.

Another aspect that experts recommend is to distribute food intake throughout the day and do, therefore 5-6 meals a day: breakfast, midmorning, lunch, snack, dinner and snack after dinner. This favors self intake and anxiety and also distributes calorie intake throughout the day.

Can skipping meals or not dine can help you lose weight?

There is no study that shows that skipping a meal can help you lose weight. Although the basis of any low-calorie diet for weight control is to reduce caloric intake is not recommended skipping meals to get it . Experts recommend not skipping meals and distributing well throughout the day, as this can help us control hunger and anxiety.

Skipping meals can help us to be hungry before the next and, consequently, we end up snacking and eating some food not recommended. For example, no dinner can make the next morning have a great appetite or not snack can make us very hungry before dinner; And so we will end up biting something before dinner or having much more breakfast than usual the next morning.

Does eating only fruit or cereals with milk help you lose weight?

Dinner is the last meal of the day and should not be a copious and plentiful meal, especially if we are going to lie down immediately after it. The caloric control of the dinner is important if we want to lose weight. However, replace dinner for some particular food such as fruit or milk cereals-, you can contribute to the imbalance of diet and even excessive intake of calories in it.

To get an idea: a bowl of fruit with a banana, 200 g of grape and two experts can contain about 400 kcal, which could have a green salad with a hard egg. The same thing can happen if we substitute dinner for a bowl of milk with cereal. If we control the quantities well, a cup of semi-skimmed milk with 30 g of cereals provides about 200 kcal, but if we replace the cup with a large bowl, the caloric intake can be around 400-500 kcal; So that we will be eating the same, or even more, than if we made a balanced dinner.

In addition, replacing the balanced meal with these foods may reduce the intake of vegetables and fruit (in the case of cereals) and therefore the consumption of dietary fiber, which could increase the risk of constipation. It can also cause a reduction in protein intake, a very important fact in patients at risk of malnutrition or in people with decreased muscle mass. So, skipping meals or unbalancing the diet does not help to lose weight or lead a healthier diet.

Breakfasts and dinners: healthy suggestions

Between breakfast and mid – morning should consume a dairy (milk, yogurt or cheese) some starchy food (bread, toast or cereal), accompanied or not – for some protein food, and fruit. For example:

A balanced and light dinner should contain raw or cooked vegetables, lean protein foods (meat, fish or eggs) and a moderate amount of starchy foods (bread, pasta, cereals and legumes). It is advisable to consult the dietitian-nutritionist about the quantitative composition, if you are on a calorie-controlled dieting. Some examples:


From the Egyptian culture in 1500AC it is believed that landscaped outdoor spaces can be spiritually and emotionally curative, and many aspects of the effect of nature on health are still under study. How can we doubt the healing power of greenery, sunlight and fresh air?

But today, in institutions such as hospitals and residences, air conditioning has replaced natural ventilation, balconies and terraces have disappeared, and nature has succumbed to parking. Making these environments stressful for patients, their visits and staff.

But what is a therapeutic garden? What exactly comprises a healing garden?
For it is a landscaped and delimited space, designed specifically to bring comfort and benefits, physical, psychological and social for the users and visitors. Because the contrast between the constructions and the natural is noticeable, the difference is to have richer sensory experiences, varied and organic forms, replacing the straight lines, but the cycle of life taught by nature is most noticeable, and you do not remember Both anxiety, illness and death. These gardens take you to a more relaxed and calm state that stimulates the immune system giving more opportunities for the body to heal itself.
It is vital to understand that these gardens do not cure cancer, or a broken arm, but they facilitate stress reduction, provide a site for physiotherapy, horticulture-therapy exercises, among other advantages such as socialization of users.
They are divided into two categories:

– Restorative Garden: for the reduction of stress, emotional support, cognitive balance, and increased sense of well-being. They can be universal or focus on small groups (children), or specific stress (cancer). Subtypes: sanctuary, meditation, and ritual gardens.
– Rehabilitation Gardens: facilitate the development or maintenance of physical or cognitive skills, through interaction with plants. Secondary benefits include improving social and psychological skills.

Medical facilities and residences lead the resurgence of the therapeutic garden because they recognize the benefits both to patients and to levels of business marketing, to include views of nature and therapeutic gardens in the palliative treatment protocol. (Ulrich, 1999)
Other institutions such as prisons , and schools are beginning to expand their programs to include activities in the garden, as an aid to improving self – esteem and social behavior.
Many civic centers are being renovated to incorporate both; Restoration and rehabilitation gardens with the aim of directing social alienation and deprivation of rights, based on studies proving that green spaces and community gardens in urban areas reduce vandalism and violence. (Lewis, 1996)
Even religious organizations are installing restorative gardens and ritual spaces, returning to the roots and paving the way for spiritual healing through increased exposure to nature.

Theoretical Basis:

There are three different hypotheses that explain therapeutic gardens. (Stigsdotter and Grahn, 2002)
– Nature Refreshes the emotional centers in the limbic system of the brain, evoking comforting biological responses. In this family and natural environment, relaxation is promoted with a positive result.
– Greenery supports cognitive functions, limiting excessive stimulation, and the need for constant attention, allowing oneself to develop their attention to itself.
– An environment with a relative prominence of plants and natural elements can restore the balance between the perception of the need to control and the ability to control, which otherwise may be very dissimilar in situations of high stress and tension.


The prosperity of plants is one of the most significant factors in the perception of the curative benefits of nature. It is interesting that there is a metamorphosis of the plants in these gardens. Thus users can become aware of changes in the life cycle, the seasons, a watercourse. But mainly that the plants are healthy.
In addition to this it is essential that in a therapeutic garden is designed according to the level of maintenance that will receive. This applies or all therapeutic gardens, even those that are designed for client / patient participation, a routine care should be performed by professionals, if one wishes to maintain a high level of therapeutic properties.
Beyond providing healthy plants, JTs must be designed and detailed in order to withstand all the emotional load and cognitive changes they will receive from users.
That is why therapeutic landscaping must be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, and especially have the help of health professionals. As well as keeping in mind that many of the common aspects of traditional garden design can be counterproductive in JTs. Particularly harmful are designs that are susceptible to ambiguous interpretations, because in most cases they will be interpreted negatively by users who are not well or at all under stress. (Ulrich, 1999) Plants with irritating sensory characteristics should also be avoided, or the design where the number of floors and structures exceeds the number of plants.

Restorative Gardens Conceptual Bases – Restorative Gardens

Current research indicates that the regenerative benefits of natural environments stem from a series of signals that suggest a therapeutic process that meets all three environmental hypotheses as a healing factor.
This therapeutic process is composed of four phases:
– La Jornada
– The sensory awakening
– Awareness of self
– tuning Spiritual
Experience all phases of restoration provides maximum benefit, evoking a quiet alertness. Each phase individually can be more useful to specific populations and therefore should be emphasized in the design of gardens for these users. For the time being in intensive care hospitals, garden users in particular need to get rid of the institutionalized image of medical buildings and buildings. (Cooper Marcus and Barnes, 1995)
Patients or other hospitalized (institutions) same as for a short period of time, suffer from lack of control over their personal life, lack of family and friends and suffer from passivity. These factors inhibit the body’s ability to heal itself.
The JT help ease the stress of patients and staff by providing the following:
– greater notion of control and privacy;
– social support;
– physical exercise and movement;
– access to nature and other positive elements.

Principles for Restorative Gardens

Ease of mobility and provision of private and social seating in the garden are particularly significant.
In addition the following recommendations are critical for this type of gardens:
. The Journey: invites physical and visual exploration. Transitions highlighted with hidden views, changing the orientation, and coats of different climates, light and shadow, different degrees of enclosure to create movement, and vision of estrangement, trying to change the painful perspectives of patients.
. Sensory awakening: a variety of non-invasive sensory stimuli, and opportunities to stop and enjoy the sensations. Attention to fragrances and wind, which are usually not noticed. This brings awareness to the moment and reduces the need for other conflictive mental activity.
. Self-awareness: apply the concept of shelters and other protective measures to create physical and psychological aerial that stimulate reflection or healing.
. Spiritual attunement: incorporate a sense of preciousness, through the ephemeral, unusual and intriguing, or the connection with other species (exotic or domestic) and move away the present problem by extending the presence of oneself to the future.
These environmental qualities facilitate analytical thinking and evoke experiences of transcendence and consciousness of the universe.

Choice of Site and use of space

To obtain the best therapeutic benefits, a restorative garden should be located where there is a minimal intrusion of the environment, especially what reminds of the presence of society. Mechanical noise, negligence and vandalism are dissuasive of the therapeutic potential of an outer space.
While garden design should pass the “get away” feel, it should also be located close to potential users. For example, in hospitals, a visual connection between the garden and the hallways or waiting rooms are critical for optimal garden use.
In places where social interaction is an important therapeutic factor (as in residences), provide ample social spaces (accommodating 6 to 10 people) with fixed and also movable seats.
Many significant details of the design of therapeutic gardens differ from one site to another.
These elements of landscaping should be discussed with staff and other professionals working on the process, and modified according to the specific needs of each project.
Some garden features can promote more than one restorative phase.

Conceptual Bases of Rehabilitation Gardens – Enabling Gardens

These gardens are designed to provide experiences that increase or support the highest levels of functionality and well being to people. People committed to gardening or the routine maintenance of a garden tend to improve and reinforce pre existing skills, as well as to train and renew new physical and mental skills. This is achieved through participation in solitary and group activities and can be spontaneous or organized.
Restorative Gardens are usually designed for people with special needs. Age, physical and cognitive skills of users, and their potential for improvement and recovery are factors that influence the need for appropriate landscaping.
These mental, physical and psychological needs must be found in the garden. Environmental adaptations that meet medical needs are also essential.

Principles for Rehabilitation Gardens

It must be safe physically and psychologically.
Must provide three levels of commitment:
– activities, opportunities and challenges.
Evaluating these components for physical and psychological improvement can serve as a structure for design goals and can assist in incorporating the right elements for proper landscaping.

Benefits of each component:

. Development of physical skills
. Experimenting with learning
. Sensory exploration
. Compliance tasks
. Integration and joint work
. The reward of harvesting flowers, herbs and vegetables

. Care and nurture a living being that responds and grows
. Exercise responsibility
. Reacting independently
. Opportunity to contribute.
. Retrieve a skill or identity
. Improved memory
. Explore limits on a benign site
. Express choices and aspects of life
. Relations between the generations (share, learn, teach)
. Participate in something
. Support and support of others.

. Meet the goals of the day
. Increase physical and psychological growth
. Achieve goals effectively
. Strategic thinking
. Confidence, sense of worth
. Relaxation through exhaustive work.

Collaboration with medical professionals to develop the activities and to find out the levels of skill of the users helps to adapt the level of challenge of activities in the garden.

Choice of Site and use of space

Scheduled activities for new patients to introduce them to the horticulture and the sensorial stimulation that carry this activity.
Structure and furnishings that facilitate access and gardening activities, improving the experience with horticulture.
Well-defined boundaries (edges), free entrances and exits, directing attention to garden elements.
Plant profusion, and human-plant interactions to integrate and emphasize sensory qualities.
Eliminate environmental pollution through the practices of horticulture, also giving the feeling of comfort and safety.
Unique sites that promote independence, reduce stress and make you sit in a special place, in your own way, with inner peace.
Extremely important:
– Soils in excellent condition
– Good drainage
– Good topographic level
– Right solar orientation
– identifying posters (which stimulate conversation)
– Take advantage of the changing seasons

Recommended Restorative and Restorative Garden Elements

Practical features:
– Respect the universal concepts of accessible design.
– Materials and non – toxic practices
– Smooth surfaces
– Glare Reduction
– Caminos with minimum width 1.80 m
– Guardrails
– UV protection areas
– limited exterior views
– Security lights
– Resistant Plants

Restorative and rehabilitative elements:
– Associative memory (plant selection)
– Encouraging wildlife
– Encourage the presence of birds (avoid in asylums)
– Points of common interest
– Areas exercises with different levels
– spaces for socializing
– Private spaces
– green plants (avoid many flowers, pollen)
– Fragrance
– touch Interest
– Elements of fascination
– Attracting attention to the wind
– seats refugees
– aesthetic Lights

General elements:
– Inputs and very well marked and defined outputs
– Seats regularly found
– Moderate temperature
– Sito fencing

The Therapeutic Gardens – Healing Gardens, are the union of site and process.
Students who want to dedicate themselves to Therapeutic Landscaping should be aware of the sociological, psychological and physical aspects of the relationship between nature and healing. And a strong knowledge of horticulture is advisable, to ensure a healthy plant community.
It is a job to be taken seriously, and not lightly, to research and obviously multidisciplinary.

If there is no space for a garden like these, why not then improve the views a bit? Vertical gardens and canopies can effectively meet this need. If you have any questions about this type of garden, do not hesitate to contact, Click Here .

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